The International Conference of Population and Development (ICPD) 1994 established an International consensus on a new approach to policies to achieve population stabilisation. Fertility reduction should be addressed at the level of broad social policy, including reduction of gender discrimination in education, health care and income generation. Reproductive health programmes should focus the needs of actual and potential clients, not only for limiting births but also for healthy sexuality and child bearing. In India, the implications of the reproductive health approach would be to shift the focus from the use of family planning as a tool intended essentially for population stabilisation, to use family planning as one among a constellation of interventions that would enable women and men to achieve their personal reproductive goals without being subjected to additional burdens of disease and death associated with their reproduction.
World Health Organization (WHO) has defined reproductive health as follows:
"Within the framework of WHO's definition of health as a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity; reproductive health addresses the reproductive processes, functions and systems at all stages of life. Reproductive health therefore implies that people are able to have a responsible, satisfying and safe sex life and that they have the capability to reproduce and the freedom to decide, if when, and how often to do so. This definition focus on right of men and women to be informed of and to have access to safe, effective, affordable, and acceptable methods of fertility regulation of their choice, and the right to access to appropriate health care services that will enable women to go safely through pregnancy and childbirth and provide couples with the best chance of having a healthy infant".
Essential Components of RCH Programme
1. Prevention and management of unwanted pregnancy.
2. Maternal care that includes antenatal, delivery and postpartum services.
3. Child survival services for newborns and infants.
4. Management of Reproductive Tract Infection (TRIs) and Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs).
The Government have power to restrict any unit, and to take samples of effluents and to get them analysed in Central or State laboratories. Whoever fails to comply with any provision of this Act is punishable with the imprisonment or with fine or with both. Second or third time breaking of the law is further punishable. Under the provision of this Act Central Pollution Control Board was established to fulfill its object.
Major Elements of RCH Programme
A. Reproductive Health Elements
Responsible and healthy sexual behaviour
Interventions to Promote Safe Motherhood
Essential Obstetric Care for All
Prevention of Unwanted Pregnancies: Increase Access to Contraceptives
Pregnancy and Delivery Services
First Referral Units (FRUs) for Emergency Obstetric Care
Management of RTIs/STDs
Infertility & Gynecological Disorders
Referral facilities by Government /Private Sector for Pregnant Woman at Risk
Reproductive Health Services for Adolescent Health
Global Reproductive Health Strategy
B. Child Survival Element
Essential New Born Care
Prevention and Management of Vaccine Preventable Disease
Urban Measles Campaign
Elimination of Neonatal Tetanus
Cold Chain System
Polio Eradication: Pulse Polio Programmes
Hepatitis B Vaccine
Global Alliance for Vaccine and Immunisation (GAVI)
Diarrhea Control Programme and ORS Programme
Prevention and Control of Vitamin A deficiency among children